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- ARTICLE 15:
The State promotes a multi-component commodity economy functioning
in accordance with market mechanisms under the management of the State and
following the socialist orientation. The multi-component economic structure with
various forms of organization of production and trading is based on a system of
ownership by the entire people, by collectives, and by private individuals, of
which ownership by the entire people and by collectives constitutes the
- ARTICLE 16:
The aim of the State's economic policy is to make the people rich and the
country strong, satisfy to an ever greater extent the people's material and
spiritual by releasing all productive potential, developing all latent possibilities of
all components of the economy - the State sector, the collective sector, the
private individual sector, the private capitalist sector, and the State capitalist
sector in various forms - pushing on with the construction of material and
technical bases, broadening economic, scientific, technical co-operation and
expanding intercourse with world markets.
- ARTICLE 17:
The land, forests, rivers and lakes, water supplies, wealth lying
underground or coming from the sea, the continental shelf and the air, the funds
and property invested by the State in enterprises and works in all branches and
fields - the economy, culture, society, science, technology, external relations,
national defence, security - and all other property determined by law as
belonging to the State, come under ownership by the entire people.
- ARTICLE 18:
The State manages all the land in accordance with the plan and the law,
and guarantees that its use shall conform to the set objectives and yield effective
The State shall entrust land to organizations and private individuals for
stable and lasting use.
These organizations and individuals are responsible for the protection,
enrichment, rational exploitation and economical use of the land ; they may
transfer the right to use the land entrusted to them by the State, as determined
- ARTICLE 19:
The State sector shall be consolidated and developed, especially in key
branches and areas, and play the leading role in the national economy.
The State-run enterprises enjoy autonomy in production and trading and
shall guarantee that production and trading are to yield effective results.
- ARTICLE 20:
The collective sector growing out of the pooling by citizens of funds and
efforts for co-operative production and trading shall be organized in various
forms following the principles of free consent, democracy, and mutual benefit.
The State shall create favourable conditions for consolidating and
broadening the co-operatives and allowing them to operate efficiently.
- ARTICLE 21:
In the private individual and private capitalist sectors people can adopt
their own ways of organizing production and trading; they can set up enterprises
of unrestricted scope in fields of activity which are beneficial to the country and
the people. Encouragement shall be given to the development of the family
- ARTICLE 22:
Production and trading enterprises belonging to all components of the
economy must fulfil all their obligations to the State; they are equal before the
law; their capital and lawful property shall receive State protection.
Enterprises belonging to all components of the economy can enter into
joint venture and partnership with individuals and economic organizations at
home and abroad in accordance with the provisions of the law.
- ARTICLE 23:
The lawful property of individuals and organizations shall not be
In cases made absolutely necessary by reason of national defence,
security and the national interest, the State can make a forcible purchase of or
can requisition pieces of property of individuals or organizations against
compensation taking into account current market prices.
The formalities of the forcible purchase of requisition shall be determined
- ARTICLE 24:
The State manages and expand external economic relations, promotes
economic ties of all kinds with all nations and all international organizations on
the basis of the principles of respect for each other's independence and
sovereignty, mutual advantage, and aiming at the protection and stimulation of
- ARTICLE 25:
The State encourage foreign organizations and individuals to invest funds
and technologies in Vietnam in conformity with Vietnamese law and intern
ational law and usage; it guarantees the right to lawful ownership of funds,
property and other interests by foreign organizations and individuals. Enterprise
with foreign investments shall not be nationalized.
The State creates favourable conditions for Vietnamese residing abroad
to invest in the country.
- ARTICLE 26:
The State manages the national economy by means of laws, plans and
policies; it makes a division of responsibilities and devolves authority to various
departments and levels of the administration; the interests of individuals and
collectives are brought into harmony with those of the State.
- ARTICLE 27:
The State shall practice economy in all its economic, social and
- ARTICLE 28:
All illegal production and trading activities, all acts wrecking the national
economy and damaging interests of the State, the rights and lawful interests of
collectives and individual citizens shall be dealt with severely and equitably by
The State shall enact policies protecting the rights and interests of the
producers and the consumers.
- ARTICLE 29:
State organs, units of the armed forces, economic and social bodies, and
all individuals must abide by State regulations on the rational use of natural
wealth and on environmental protection.
All acts likely to bring about exhaustion of natural wealth and to cause
damage to the environment are strictly forbidden.