After the Manchurian Incident, the Sino-Japanese War, and World War II, the era of war comes to an end at last on August 15, 1945. Amid the ashes of devastated cities, the prefabricated barracks-style public telephone box appears. A number of innovative phone box styles appear on the city streets during the rebuilding period. Other developments include desks set up outdoors to function as Special Telephone Sites as people in the postwar era struggle to survive in an area of scarcity of material and food.